߾ ͩ ϼ
- Ү -


ף*

Ӹ (1) ͩ ̫
1 . ͩ ͩͧ (2) Ү ̫
(1) ͩ 3 . ͩ
(2) ͩͧ
2 . ͩ㯰 Ү

. Ӹ


߾ ͩ ϴ Ͽ ָ ޾ Դ. ׷ ̷ κ ⺻ {߲} , Ư Ѣ ʤ ҽϴ 忡 Ͽ ߾ ͩ㯿 ü ׸ . ׸ ͩ ߽ ̸ , '߲ء' ξ ͩ ̷ ǹ̸ Ȯϰ ظ Ͽ.
ٷ {߲} Ѣ ϴ 忡* ϼ ϼ
) , [ͯ ʫ] {ߣ} 14, 1973 ; {ͯ ʫ깰 }, ݻ, 1986.
ͩ ߳ ݡ ̷ٴ ذ õ ִ.) , [ ͩ] {ʫϼ}, , 1983.
࿡ ִ ȿ ؼ ͩ㯿 Ͽ ̳ ʴ. ׷Ƿ, ̴ ð ޸Ͽ ߲ء ƴ 5 ģ Ȱ ־ ̴.) , [{߲} ̴ [] ] {ͯ ʫ깰 }, ݻ, 1986, 329.

Ϲ μ , Ѣ ó ϴ ߰ ϴ.) , [ ] {} 48, 1987 ; {ͯ ϼ}, , 1987.
ش ۿ ó ݫͧ ̶ Ʒ ͩ㯿 ߴ ó ־ٴ ǰ ũ. ׷ ͩ㯿 ' ' ϴ ߿ ũ ָ Ͽ.
ϴ ٿ , ڿ ̸, ڰ ̰ ģ ڷ ȴ. , ҳ ȸ οѴٴ ǹ̸ ´. ߧٰ ͩ ذ Ұ 踦 δ ̸,) Ƽ, , {׾}, , 1981, 153.
ݫͧ Ȥ ٽͧ ַ ΰ ִ.) Ŭ , ȯ ű, {ûȸ }, μ, 1980, 36-40.

̿ ذ 迡 ־ ص . ׷Ƿ ߾ ͩ ü ϱ ؼ ؿ 䱸ȴ. Ư ߾ Ϲ μ Ү 濡 ظ ͩ ϼ ־ ʿ ϳ ۾ ̴.
ڴ ̹ ߾ۿ ߵǾ ִ " ݫ" ٣ ܿ ذ ִ. ׷ ݫͧ ̶ 뿡 ִ.) ף, [߾ ϼ] {ϼ} 27, ϼ, 1994. 12.
׷ Ӽ󿡼 ߾ ͩ㯿 ϱ ϳ ۾μ ߾ ߵǾ Ү ǹ̿ Ѵ.
1忡 ͩ㯰 Ү ü 踦 ϱ ۾μ ͩ õϰ, ̸ Ͽ ͩͧϸ ϰ Ѵ. 2忡 ͩͧϸ ؼ ͩ ̫ ͩ ϸ 캸鼭 װ ߾ ǹ̿ ظ Ѵ. 3忡 ͩ㯰 谡 ߾۶ Ⱓ  칸 ̴ ̰ Ѵ.

2. ͩ ͩͧ

(1) ͩ

߾ ͩ㯰 Ү Կ ־ Ǿ ۾δ پϰ ϴ ͩ ర ͩ㯰 Ү ü ִ ͩͧ ִ. Ư, ͩ 켱Ǿ ۾̴. ֳϸ ͩ Ͽ ͩ ͧϴ ٸ ׷ , ͩͧϰ ڿ ݾ ٸ ľǵǰ ׷ ̴ .


[ǥ ] ߾ ͩ ) ٣ ߾ӫ { ߲}, ӫ {߲} ۼϿ.

٣
٣

ݫ
ݫ
ٽ
ݫ

ݫ
1













2













3













4







ӹ


ҳ


5

/




ץ






6
Ѷؤ





ؤ





ب
7

/







/



8
ӹ




Ү
ؤ






9



Ү









10



Ү









11



ٶ
Գ








12













13
ګ
Գ



٥

Գ

/
ު
٥Ҧ

14













15


()










16



٤










٣
٣

ݫ
ݫ
ٽ
ݫ

ݫ
17
үڨ

Գ



ګ
Գ/





18






ګ






19
Ѷ
үڨ


ګ


үڨ

Ү
ڱ


20









/



21




ڱ

Ҭ



ڱ

Ѣ
22


үڨ




Ѣ





23













24





Գ







25



Գ

Գ



Բ/



26



ؿ/ؿҮ

ؤ



ؿ/ؿһ

ؤ/ػ

27



ؤ





ؤ



28







/

٥








̶ ⺻ Ѱ Ͽ ü ȸ . ߿ ģ Ͽ, 忡 Ը ȵǰ ִ κ ȯ ݫͧ ٽͧ پ ǵ Ǿ. ׷ ұϰ Ϲ μ Ү иϰ ϰ ִ. ׷Ƿ ¼ ݫͧ Ǵ ٽͧ ϳ Ʋδ , ſ پ Ŀ Ưϰ ȸٰ ̴.
kinҮ Ѵٸ ׷ 濡 ̵ ̻ ݫͧ ٽͧ ̸ ȴ.) Robert H.Lowie, Social Organization, (NewYork, 1948), Chapter 11, 237.
, [ ͯ ӥ ] {Ӧ} 40, 1975 ; { }, , 1984, 114ʿ .
߾ Ү Ϲ ̾ ο дٸ, ͩ ü ϴ ־ ݫͧ ٽͧ ʿ ̴. ֳϸ, ݰ ݫͧδ ̸鼭 ٽͧδ ߲ ǰ ͧδ Ǵ γ ģ谡 Ǵ ׷ Ȳ ģ踸 ϴ ǹ ۿ ̴. ׷Ƿ, ݫͧٽͧͧ ϳ áϱ⺸ٴ ȣ 鿡 ʿ䰡 ִ.
ͩ ϰ ȴ. װ ٸ ƴ϶ ͩ ġ ʴ پ ϰ ִٴ ̴. ͩͧϸ ϱ ؼ ̵鿡 缱 䱸Ǿ. ٸ ̵ 缱ÿ ļ ȵǰ ̵ 缱ð Բ ׿ ո ظ Ǿ ̴.



׾

ݫ
ݫ ȥ
(-)үڨ(-Գ)
ݫ ȥ
(-)
ݰ ȥ
(-Ѷب)
ݫ ȥ
(-)(-)
٣
(-)(-)(-)(-Ѣ)(-)(--)
ݫ
ͧ ȥ
(-)
ٽ
٣
Ǵ
ݫ
Ѷؤ(-)(-)ګ(-)(--)үڨ(-Ү-Ү)(- )(-)(Գ-Գ-)(ؿ-ؿҮ-ؿһ)(-٥)
ȥ
(-Գ)
ݫ
ݫ ȥ
(-)
٣
ګ(-ު)(-)(ڱ-ڱ)

٣ Ǵ
(--)(-ץ)(--)(-)Ѷؤ(-)(-) (-)(-Գ)(ؤ-غ)
ݫ
ݫ
(-ץ), (-)
絷 ȥ
(-Ѷب)
٣
(ץ-)Ѷؤ(ؤ-ب)(-ڱ-ڱ-ڱ)(Ҭ-Ѣ)(-)

[ǥ 2] ͩ ݻ

{߲} {߲} ͩ , ͩ ٸ ϴ װ Ѵٱ ٴ ȸ ݿϴ ȣ ǵ ϴ ִ. ׷ 忡 ġ ʴ κп ո ظ .
α 'Ѣ ʫ' ) , [ȿ ϴ] {۰} 51 , 1986 ; {ͯ ۰}, 1987, 464-466.
, Ŀ ʫ Ͽ Ⱓ ϰ Ǵ Ŷ ݫ 'ݫ' ٸ ̴. Ĵ뿡 ݫͧ 忡 ϴ ݫ ݫ ȥؼ ִ. , ݫ Ȥ ̶ ִ. ׷ 񱳸 ؼ ݫ̸, ݫ Ȯ ִ. ׷Ƿ ݫ ݫ Ⱓ ʫϴ α ݿ ִ.
ǡǥ2 ̴ ٿ , 'ݫ' پ κ ݫ ݫ ݫ ݫ ݫ ȥ ̴. ׷Ƿ 񱳸 ؼ ݫ̰ ݫ ־ Ͱ ʰ ִ. ׵鰣 踦 Ȯϰ ϴ ش. ȥ̳ Ż '٣' ȥ δ.
'ٽ' '' ׷ϴ. , ٽ ̰ų ݿ ̸, 忡) , [ͯ ] {Х} 9, 1985 ; {ͯϼ}, , 1987, 192-199.
̵ Ȱ ٽ̸ ̴. , ݫ ݫ ̸ ٽ ̸ ٽ ̸ ̴ ƴϸ ڸŵμ ݰ ɼ ũ. ׷ ̷ ̴ ͩͧ ۼ ٸ ʴ´.
̻ ᱹ ѿ ͩ پ ȸ ݿϴ ȣ ٰ ִ. ̷ ߾ ͩͧϸ Ѵ.

(2) ͩͧ

߾۴ Ү ̾Ͼ ݰ ѻ̿ 谡 ϰ ִ. ߿ . ߲ ߽ ǥ ׸ , ݰ μ ִ е ǥ ߺؼ Ǵ ŷο ȴ. ׷ ǥ ݰ Ѱ 踸 ̾, ξ ꬵ 踦 ݿ .
Ư ٴ ܼ ΰ ô踦 δ Ӹƴ϶ ȥ ڵ θڸŵ鰣 踦 δ ̴.) Ernest L. Schusky, {Manual for Kinship Anaysis}, 1972. 7.
Conrad Phillip Kottak, {Cultural Anthropology}, 1974, 107.
, {߾ͩϼ}, ֺݻ, 1980, 194ʿ .
׷Ƿ ܼ հ Ư ȥΰ踸 ִ ׷ ͧϴ ͩ ϴ 䰡 ʿ ϴ.
, ̰ ٶ̸, ٶ ݫ Գ ״ ګ ݫ̴. ګ ҳ ٥̸, ̴. ̵ 迡 ؼ Ʒ
ͧ 1 , 䫡䫷 ǥ .) , å, 297-298ʿ ݻ



+--() ------Գ
| || ||
|| | |+----- |+-----+----ګ
|+-------+ || || || | ||
|| | ٶ* |+----٥* | ||
| || | ||
+--- | ٥*
|| |
|+----- |
|| |
() Ү () +---ٶ*

ͧ 1



ͧ 1 ڰ 踸 . Գ ݫ Ǹ, ګ ߲ ߳ Ǵ ڸ ѷ ѵ 踦 ϴµ ټ ϴ. ׷Ƿ ׷ Ү սDZ鰣 踦 ִ ͧ 2 ͩͧ ʿ ϴ.


Գ
| |
+-----+----+ +----+-----+
| | | |
Ү===== =====ٶ |
| +--------+---+ |
| | | |
===== | |
| | |
======= |
| |
٥==============ګ

ͧ 2



ͧ 2 ȥδڻӸ ƴ϶ 簡 ľ ִ. ݫ Գ̸, ݫ ã ִ , ᱹ ګѰ ٥ ͰǴ ͧϸ , ׵ ͩ㯰 ʾҴٴ ִ. ̿ ߾ ü ͩͧϸ ϸ ͧ 3 .
̻ ߾ ͩ ü ϱ ؼ ͩ м ͩͧ ۼ ʿϴ. 켱 ͩ м ѿ پ ȸ ݿϴ ־. ׸ ߾ ս Ϲ ȥξ սdz ģȥ̶ ׷ սǼ 踦 ϱ ؼ Ǵ 躰 ͧϺٴ ׿ʹ ٸ 躸ۼ 䱸ȴ.

ͧ 3߾ ͩ ͧ




(1)=====
| ---+
ץ (2)===== +------+
| +-------------+-+ | +---Գ---+
+------+ +---------|-|--+------++ +------+
| ======== | =====(4) +------+
| (5) | (3) +---|----+ +-------------+ +----------+
ؤ ===== | +----+ Ү=====|
| | | (7) | | | +-------+ |
| (6) +---+ ====== +----------+ | +----+
=-+-=Ѷؤ +---------------------------+ Գ===
+-------------|-----------+ +-------+----+(9) +--------+
| | | | | |
ӹ===Ү=== =====ٶ |
(8)+----------------------+ +--------------+ |
| +-+--------------+---+ |
(10) === | | |
+----------------+------+----|-----------+ | |
| | | (12) |
| | | | |
| ====== |
| +-----+ (11) | +---------------+--------++ |
| +------|--------+---------+------------|----+ | | |
======٤ ===== ===== ٥=====ګ =====
| (14) | | | (13) |
| | | ++-------+ |
(15) (17)үڨ===== =====
(16) +----------+----------------+------+ | (18)
| | (19) +---------|--------------+
| ثء=====
Ѣ +-----+----+ |
()======= ثء=====
| +-------------+ (20) |
==========ثء(22) =====ثء(21)
+---------------------+ +--+
| =====
| (23) |
===================
+--------------------------+-----------+ |
| | (24)=====Գ
| | +----+----------------+(25) |
ҿڡ ؿ===== =====
| | | | |
| | +----------+---------+(26) | |
===ؿ٥ ٥=== ===ؤ |
| | +-----+---------------+ |
| | | +---------|--+------+
| ҳ(28) (27)ҳ ===٥
+--------------------------------------+ +------------+ ()
٥===(29)


2. Ү ͩ

(1) ͩ ̫

ͩ ſ ߿ ġ̴. ׷ ߾ ͩ㯿 ߳ݡ̶ ) Ŷ ¿ ſհ 踦 ո Ű ƴ϶ յ , ϴ Ǿ Ѵ. (.ף, [ ͩ ͧ۰ - ͩ ִ°?-] { İ }, (ϼ 17), ʰ , 1990, 14-32.)
5 ģ ̫ͩ ߴ. ̴ ݸ ͩ㯿 ̰ ɵ ߴٴ ǹ ϸ, ư ͩ ¡Ǵ Ƿ ٽ Ÿ Ǿٴ ǹѴ. ̳ 뿡 ͩ Ӹ ƴ϶ ϰ ϴ ͩ㯿 ̰ų ߳ٴ ̰ Ȯεȴ.
ó ݸ ͩ㯿 ߴٰ ͩ⿡ üμ ġ°̱⵵ ģ 谡 ū ̶ . ֳϸ, Ÿ ս ģ ͩͧ߾ ġ ׵鰣 ġ ± ̱ ̴. ٽ ؼ, ͩ㯿 ģ ū ¿ ۿ ɼ ʴ.
߿ ͩ㯿 ϱ ؼ Ÿ ġ ͩͧ߾ ġ ϱ ̴. ׷ ȿ μ ä ۿ ̴. ֳϸ սdz ģȥ ؼ ׵ ͩͧ߾ ֱ ̴. ׷Ƿ ̿ ϴ ģ ͩͧ߾ ϴ Ÿ սǼ ϰ ȴ.
ͩ㯿 ģ ߽ ͩ ̫ 캸 Ѵ.
ͩ ٷ μ ݫͧ ߴ ̰ ׷ 縦 ϰ ުӤͧ ͩ ν '5 ģ' ͩ ľ '' '߳' ͩ㯿 켱ߴٴ Ģ ϰ ִ. ׷ ͩ㯿 иϰ ׿ʹ ٸ ϰ ִ.

1 ߴ. ̴. ...... Ⱑ Ͽ Ƿ ȸ ̷ 纸ϴ, ϱ⸦ Ĵ ٰ ƴմϴ. Ǵ ̰ ٰ ߽ϴ. ̿ þ ϴ ̰ Ҵ. ̿ ¿ Ҿ ޵ ̶ ̿ . ..... ӹϿ Ƶ ̸⸦ Ŀ  Ҵμ ˸ ̾ Ͽ. ({߲} 1 Ҵ)

2 ӹϿ ϱ⸦ "ݲ Ͻñ⸦ " Ŀ Ƶ ϰ Ҵ ̸ ڰ ȸ ϶" ϼ̴. ߿ ̴. ׷Ƿ ȸ ϴ ϴ" Ͽ. ({߲} 1 Ҵ)

3 ...... ̴. ӹϿ ϱ⸦ μ ȸ ϶ Ͽ. ({߲} 2 Ҵ)

[1] (2) ͩ㯿 ߳ ΰ ̫ ִٴ Ģ ߴ. (3) , װ ܼ ̱ ٴ ̸ '' 'Ҵ' μ ɷ ޾ұ⿡ ߴ. ׷Ƿ ׷ ͩ㯿 '' '߳' 켱ߴٰ .
̴ [2] ̴ ٿ , (5)̳ (7) ռ ߳ (4) ϴ , ׷ϴ.
, [3] (10) ߳ (11) ο 켱ؼ ͩ, ߳ ګ(13) (14) ͩ ׷ Ȯεȴ. , ִ Ȳ ߳ ϰ ִ ̴.


٣
ͪ

⡤ϡѶؤᡡɡ衤򱡤
9


1
9

ӹѶ
3
߳
ӡګۡүڨ
5

ǥ 3


ǥ 3 ̴ ٿ ȥΰ踦 ߿Ͽ ̸鼭 ߳ ݰ ҳ ߳ Ͽ Ѵٸ :߳ 9:9 ȴ. ġ ߳ ڰ ϴ ڷᰡ Ǹ .
ͩ㯿 ߳ 켱Ͽٴ ؿ Ѵ. ֳϸ տ ɹٿ Ģγ ε ߳ 켱ؼ ͩ ϱ ̴. ׷Ƿ 󿡼 ߳ ͩ δٰ ߳ 켱ߴٴ Ģ ̴. ο ߰ ȥΰ ߰ȴٸ տ ̴ ߳ ġ ȵǴ ̴ 󸶵 غ ֱ ̴.) ٷ ߰ߵ {Ѻ} Գ ثء . ݰ Գ Գ 忡 ݫͧδ 7̸̰ ٽͧδ 4̰ ȴ. ʤ ؼ ٸ Գ δ. , ⼭ ǥ 濡 ظ Ѵ. ݫͧ δ ݰ ̸, ٽͧδ ̸ ͧδ ȴ. Դٰ Գ ҳ ϿǷ, ݰ 絷 ȴ. , ݰ ݫͧδ 8, ٽͧδ 4, ͧδ 2, ٽ 絷()̶ 踦 ΰ ִ ̴. ׷Ƿ ̰ Ү ϴ ߿ ǹ̸ ̴.
(ݫͧ)
үڨ
+-----+----+
| |
Ѷ
| |

| |



(ٽͧ)
Ѷ
|
+----+----+
| |

| |
| |



(ͧ)

|
+---+---+
| |
=-+-=
| |
| |
=======Գ



̴ κ ͩ μ ݫٽ ؼ Ұ Ῡϰ ִ ߷ ̴.
̿ ͩ ̫ ߳ ʾҴٸ, ׷ ׵ ݰ ݸ ̫ͩ ִٴ ǰ߰ ϸ Ǵ κ ִ. ֳϸ ߳ ̫ͩ ϴٸ, ׵ Ŀ ׵ ݻӸ ƴ϶ ׵ ߳ ߳(-߳)߳(߳-߳) ڰ ־ ̱ ̴.
ǥ 4 ٿ ġ '>߳' ' ߳ > ߳ ߳'( >߳>>߳) ȴ. ׷ ȥΰ谡 κ õǾ ¿ Ұϸ ׷ ¿ ߺ 谡 13 Ÿ


٣
ͪ

ӹӡ
4
+

5
߳+

2
߳+߳

1

Ѷ
1

15) ǥݡ߳ݡ߳ ģ

ݰ Ѵٸ 15:18 谡 . ̿ ȸ ʫݫ𤸦 ϴ ݫͧ忴ٸ ؼ ȵ ̴.


--()
--߳(߳)
-߳-()
-߳-߳(߳)
1
--
--
Ѷؤ--
--ګ
2
--
-Ѷؤ-ӹ
--
-ګ-үڨ
3
--Ѷؤ
--
ګ-үڨ-Ѷ
-ګ-
4
--
--
-Ѷ-
ګ--Ѷ
5
--ӹ
үڨ--
Ѷ-Ѣ-
Ѷ-Ѣ-
6
--
үڨ-Ѣ-
--

7
--
--


8
--



9
--



10
--



11
--



12
үڨ-Ѷ-



13
Ѷ-Ѣ-



14
--



15
--


ǥ 4



߳ ڰ Ͱ ׵ Ŀ ׵ ݡݰ Բ ׵ ߳ ߳߳ ڰ ٰ ִ.
߳ (߳) ߾ ͩ ߿ ܼ ش. ߳ 翬 ׵ ߳ 켱ؼ ͩѴ. , (߳-)߳(߳-߳) ׵ ݫ ų ݫ ߳ 켱ؼ ͩ . , ߳ ִ ¿ ߳ ͩ ̴.
׷ٸ ö󰡼 ǹ̿ ̱⵵ ߳ ݫ ִ ¿ ߳ ߴ ǹ̴. ߾ Ү Ͽ ̫ͩ࿡ ذ踦 δ 찡 ٹݻ翴. ߳ ݫ μ ̫ͩٸ, ̵ ͩ  ǹ ִ ȴ.
ͩ Ͽ ߴ Ѷب ߳ ڽ ӹݿ ռ , ګ ߳ үڨ ڽ ߳ Ѷݿ ռ , Ѷ ߳ ڽ ݿ ռ , ڽ ߳ ⧿) ߳ Ŀ ϰ .
ռ ִ.
̿ , ־ μ ̫ͩ ߳ ݫ ڽ ߳ 켱 ؼ ̫ͩμ ͩߴٰ ִ. ̿ ؼ Ү Ͽ ϰ ٷ Ѵ.
߾ ͩ㯿 ߳ ڰ ׵ ׵ ݡݰ ׵ ߳ ߳߳ ̫ ޾Ҵ. ־ ߳ ׵ ߳ 켱Ͽ Ͱ ̫ͩ ߳ ݫ 켱ؼ .

(2) Ү ̫

ݰ 踦 , ݰ Ͽ ô踦 ݵ ߾ۿ ټ ϰ ִ. ̷ ߾ Ϲ ٰϰ , ̴ ͩ㯰 ʴ. ׷Ƿ ̷ Ү ͩ 迡 䰡 ʿϴ.
ٽ ؼ ߾ ͩ Ү Ͽ Ϲ ݰ ̻ 踦 ΰ ִ. ǥ5 ̴ ٿ , ΰ '' ǥ¡Ǵ Ϸ Ư Ȳ ҳݡҳ ߾ 25ȸ ͩ㯿 17 ͩ(68%) ݰ  ̻ ģ 踦 ϰ ΰ ִ Ȯεȴ. ׷ ⿡ ѵ鳢 Ѵٸ μ Ǵ ѵ ΰ ִ ̴. ׷Ƿ ͩ㯰 Ͽ Ү ǹ̿ ʿ ̴.


ݰ μ
1


2


3

.
4

߳. ߳
5

.
6
ب
.
7

Ѷؤ 絷. .
8
ӹ
Ѷؤ ߳. . ߳.
9

Ѷؤ 絷.
10

Ѷؤ .
11

߳.
12


13
ګ
߳. ߳
14


15


16


17
үڨ
ګ ߳. ߳
18

ګ ߳.үڨ 絷. ߳
19

߳.үڨ .ګ .ګ ߳
20

Ѷ . .үڨ .үڨ ߳
21

.Ѷ ߳.үڨ ߳.Ѷ
22

絷.Ѷ .үڨ
23

߳. . ߳
24

.
25

. 絷
26

絷.
27


28

ǥ 5ݰ ģ




Ϲ Ү ) , { Үϼ}, 1988. 118-132.
ο ̶) "ʫ ؿ Ͽ װ ʫ Ϸ ǵν ٴ ǽ ."(E.A.Westmark, ӹ , {׾}, 1981, 91.)
ǹ̸ . ̴ Ͽ 븦 ȭϷ ̸, Ǿ ģ ̴.) 濡 ǰ ִ. Ḧ ȭϸ, 밳 ذ ӥ μ ξ ӽŰ, ̷ ´ٴ ̴.
(John Beatie, å, 165-168.)
ֺ ִ ͩ㯿 ¸ϰ ϰ ø ִ.) , å, 116-118.
׷Ƿ Ү ۿ , װ ͩ㯰 õ ̴.
ǥ6 ̴ ٿ , ݰ Ѱ ̫ͩ ̴ ƴϴ. ó, ̫ͩ ͩ㯿 ҿ Ǵ ̰ 翬 ġ̴. ܼ ̫ͩ ϳ ҿܵ Ϳ ʴ. ֳϸ ̫ͩ Ŀ ݫݫ ׵ μ ؼ ۿ ֿġ 輼µ ϰ յ · ϰ ֱ ̴. ͩ ̳ ƴ϶ ġ輼 ߴ ɻ簡 ƴ .
׷Ƿ ͩ㯿 ҿܵǾ Ҹ ǰ ۿ ̫ͩ ׵ Ҹ å , ͩ ѷ Ÿå ʿ ̴. ̶ ̵ Ҹ ִ ȿ å ͩ ȸ οϿ ٽ ѹ ͩ㯿 ְ ִ .
⼭ ߾ ߳ ̫ͩ ߳ ݫ ͩ㯰 ʾҴ ǰ Բ, ȭǾ ģ Ӱ Ү Ѵٴ Ү ǹ̸ ʿ䰡 ִ. , ͩ㯿 ܵ ̵ Ҹ ȿ ϱ ׵ ξ ߳ Ǵ ߳ ݫ  ٽ ѹ ͩ ϴ ȿ ̴.
׷ٸ ݰ ϰ 踦 ϴ ߾ Ү ġμ ͩ㯿 ҿܵ ̫ͩ ͩ ȸ οѴٴ ǹ̸ ȴ. ٸ ̶ ׷ μ ݰ ϰ 谡 Ѣͩ㯿  ߴ° 캼 ʿ䰡 ִ. ֳ ϸ ׷ Ÿ缺 Ү ǹ̸ ϰ ֱ ̴.
տ ٿ , ̫ͩ ߳ ģ ׵ ̸. ó ̫ͩ ̶ , ׷ ݰ 迡 ͩ ̫ ο Ȯϰ ͩ ϴ ƴ϶ ִ. ׷Ƿ ̫ͩԴ ݰ ϳ 躸ٴ ϰ 谡 ͩ а迡 ־ ġ ϰ ӿ ǽ .




()
()
1



..()

2

.

.

3

.

Ѷؤ.ӹ

4





5

Ѷؤ

(ӹ.)

6
ب
Գ
ӹ.


7

ӹ



8
ӹ




9

.

..

10

.

.()
.(ګ).()
11

.


.(үڨ).()
12





13
ګ

үڨ.

.Ѷ.Ѣ.(Ѷ)
14





15





16





17
үڨ
Ѷ.Ѣ.

.(Ѣ).()..()

18


Ѷ

.(Ѣ)
19


Ѣ

.()
20



()

21




()
22

.

().() ..

23




..()
24

.

.. ..

25

.



26



(.)


27





28





ǥ 6ſհ հ



ݫ ̴. ׷ ߳ ݫ߳ ô ؼ 󸶵 ׷ 踦 ִ ̴. ̫ͩ ڽ ߳ Ȯϰ ϱ ڽ μ ִ ̳ ٸ ̫ͩ ϰ ȴ. ߿ ߾ Ϲ Ǹ, ̷ ͩ㯰 ȴ.
׷Ƿ ۿ ͩ㯿 ҿܵǾ Ҹ ϱ ؼ õǾ. ׸ ̫ͩ ο ǹ̸ Ү ݰ 踦 ̫ͩ Ÿ ѵ鿡 ͩ㯿 켱ߴٰ ִ.
Ѷب ̱⸸ ݿ, ߳ ̱⸸ ݿ, үڨ ߳ Ѷ үڨ ̱⸸ ڽ (үڨ ) ڱۿ, ߳ ̱⸸ ݿ 켱ؼ ־ ٷ ⿡ ã ִ.
, ߾ Ү ݰ ϰ ͩ㯿 ¸ϱ ͩ 깰̶ ִ. ׸ ׷ Ү ͩ㯿 ҿܵ ж ذϱ , ϳ ġ ߴٰ ִ.

3. ͩ


߾ ͩ㯿 ߳ ϰ ޾Ҵ Ͱ ׵ Ŀ ׵ ߳ ڰ . ׸ 鿡, ͩ㯿 ҿܵ ̫ͩ Ҹ ϱ ͩ ο ǹ̸ Ү ̷, ݰ ô踦 ͩ㯿 Ÿ ڵ ġ ͩ㯿 Ͽ. ̷ ͩ⸦ ߾ ͩ 칸 ̳ ʷ Ѵ.
(1) ''μ ͩ (2) '' '' (3) ͩѴ. ׷ ͩ㯿 ҿܵǾ (4) ߳μ ϳ ᡿ ռ ȸ ͩѴ. ׷Ƿ ٸ Ŀ Ѵٰ ؼ, ͩ㯿 ߳ 켱Ѵٰ . ׷ , ϳ ᡿ ռ ͩ ظ ̴.
ͩ㯿 ҿܵǾ ߳ Ŀ Ͱ ͩ㯿 ҿܵǾ (5) Ѵ. ó, 3-4-5 ̸ ͩ ؼ ̷ , ߾ ̳ 븳 Ÿ ʴ ̷ ̵ ͩ 鿡 ȣ Ÿ ̷ ִ.


(1)
|
(2)
(3) +----+----+
=-+-= =-+-=
+------+------+ | (4)
(7) | (5)
| |
| (6)ؤ (9)
(8) | | |
ӹ====Ү============

ͧ 4


ȴ Ѷب(6) µȴ. ؼ ͩ㯿 ҿܴϰ ̴. Ѷب ҮѰ ӹ ؽѼ ӹ ߳ ͩ 㺸 ־ ᡰ µ Ҹ ϰ ȴ. Ѷب 翬 ߳ ӹ ͩ ɼ ũ. ׷ Ѷب ߳ ݫ ߴ ߿ (7) Ѷب ߳ ڽ ӹ(8 ) ռ ϰ ȴ. ׷Ƿ ϱ⺸ٴ Ѷب ߳ ݫ 谡 ӹ ϱ⺸ٴ Ѷب ߳ 谡 ͩ㯿 ũ ۿߴٰ ִ.
ݰ Ѷب ݫ ͩ ҿܵǰ ڴ ݰ ӹݸ ƴϴ. ΰ ׷ߴ. ӹ Ѷبݰ ͩ ޾, ̴ ׷ ؿ Ǿ. ׷ μ (9) ӹ ¼ ڽŰ ߾ ӹ Ѷب Ү ڽ , ´. ׸Ͽ ᱹ Ѷب ߳ ݫμ ȿ ڽŵ Ѷب ߳ ݫμ Ѷب ߳ ڽ ⿡ ռ ͩѴ.
Ѷب ߳ ڽ ̹ Ѵ. ׷Ƿ ͩ ̫ ӡ ߳(-߳) ׸ Ѷب ־ ̴. ׷ ͩ ΰ ׵ 踦 ؼ ִ. , ̸߳ Ѷب ̱⵵ (10) ǽ . Ư, Ѷب ߳ ݫμ, Ѷب ߳ ݫ ⿡ ռ ߱⿡ ׷ϴ. ٸ ݵ , Ѷب ̶ 谡 ߿ ߴٰ ִ. ׷ ߳(-߳) .


(9)
+------------+------------+

+---------------+-------+-----+ |
| | =-+-=(10)
| +-------------|---------+--------+----------------+
| | | |
| | | | |
(12) =-+-=(11)=-+-= |
+----------------+ +--------+--------+ |
(14) (13)ګ===٥ ٤=-+-=
| | |
============(?)============(15) (16)

ͧ 5



ͩ Ӱ ־, ʫݫ ͩ ߴٸ, Ͽ ̴. ׷ Ͽ Ѵ. ׷ ׷ ͩ ޸ ص ִ. Ī δ ,) Ƹ ̹ ̸Ŵ δ.
Īȣ ֵ Գ) ף, . 71-72.
߳ ̫ͩ. ̶ ͩ㯿 ҿܵ Ѷب ߳μ 翬 ͩ ־ ̴.
׷ٸ 鿡 ׵鿡Դ 翬 ͩ ο ǹ̸ Ү ̷ ̸, ҳ ΰ Ǿ, ߳ ݫ Ǿ, ߳ Ǿ. ׷ Ƿ ͩ ߴ, ͩ 纸 ݴ޺ημ ߳ ݿ 켱 ־ ̴. , ͩ 翬 ̾ ۿ ̴.
ڽ 纸 Ϲ ̴. ׷Ƿ 鿡 ߳ Ǿ ͩ ް Ǹ ߳μ (11) Ѵ. ߳ μ ϴ ڽ ߳ ̷ ͩ ϴ ӿ Ʋ .
׷ ̹ ٿ ,) ף, , 72-75.
ٽ (12) ͩϰ ǰ Ⱓ ߿ ͩ㯿 ̾ ո ħԿ å ûѴ. ׷Ƿ İ ͩ ʫ 'ڱ' , 10-11븦 ģ ͩ㯰 Ү 濡 ҿܰ ƴѰ ʹ.


(9)
+----------+------------+

+----------+ (10) |
| =-+-=
(11) | +--------+
=---= |
+----------+ |
٤-+-=
+--------+
(16)

ͧ 6



Ⱓ ͩ ڸ ã´. ͩ û ΰ ʫ ϴ ߳ ګ(13) ̾. ګ ߳ Ͱ ګ ګݫ Գݰ ġ ޿ ݴ޺̱⵵ ϴ. ׷ ׷ û ҳ ٤ ̴ Ұ ̴. ߿ μ ̴ ٿ ħ ʷ ˸鼭 ګ ٤ ̸, (16) ̷ 鿡 ִ.) ף, , 73-75.
, ɿ ռ ߳ ګ ߳ ͩ߾ 켱 ־ ƴ ٽ ѹ Ȯν ش.
߳ ګ Ͽ ͩ㯿 ҿܵ ڴ ɿ ̴. (14) ᱹ ͩ㯿 ؼ ҿܵ ̴ ̴. ״ ͩ ȥ ߴ ݿ ־ ƴ . ߿, 鿡, Ѷب ӹ ߳ ߳ Ҵ Ȯ ȵ, ߳ ɼ ʴٰ ִ. ̷ 忡 , (15) ͩ ص ִ.
5-6-7-8 ҿܹ Ͱ , ګ 14-15-16븦 ŵϴ ؼ ͩ㯰 Ү 濡 ҿܵǰ ־. ׷Ƿ 39-47Ⱓ õ ٴ ګ ݵ ͩ㯰 ʹ.


Գ
+---------------+---------------+
ڱ(13)
| +---+---+ |
=+= =+=үڨ
(18) +---+ +---+ (17)
===Ѷثء(19)

ͧ 7



ګ ߳μ үڨ(17) ϰ ȴ. Գ ګ ڽ ΰ ξ ߳ ݫ үڨ ߳ ´. ̷ ͩ㯰 ׵ 鿡 ̷ ̸, үڨ ׵ ҳ Ѱ Ѷ ׷ ̶ ִ. ׷Ƿ үڨ ߳ ݫ Ѷب ߳ ݫ ̳ ٿ , үڨ Ѷ 켱ؼ ͩ ִ ġ ־ٰ ִ.
ګ ߳ үڨ ߳ ݫμ (18) ڽ Ͽ үڨ ڱ ڽ ̱߳⵵ Ѷ Ϸ Ѵ.) {߲} 3 Ѷثء Ҵ
׷ ߳ Ѷثء(19) ݫ ϰ Ѵ. ⼭ ׵ Ѱ ϰ Ѷ ߳, ׵ ̶ ǿ Ʋ .
̸ ؼҼ ̵ ̵ͩ ߾ ͩ㯿 ̴. ٲپ ؼ ̿  ġµ ƴϰ ͩ㯿 . ׷Ƿ ս ȥ ѷ ° ġ ִ. ׸ ⼭ ߾ ͩ ü ġ ̱⵵ ģ迡 ؼ ¿Ǿ ٽ ѹ Ȯ ִ.


үڨ(17)
+-----------------+-----------------+
| Ѷثء(19)
Ѣ +------+------+ |
()=-+-= (20)ثء=-+-=
+------------+ |
(22)ثء =-+-=ثء(21)
| |
(23)=============

ͧ 8



Ѷ Ѷ ثء(20) Ѵ. ݫ ڱ( ) ҳ ڱ ϴ Ѣ ҳ ڽ Ѣ Ѵ. ׷Ƿ Ѣ ߳ ثء(21) ͩϴ 翬 ġ ̴.
׷ ߴ ڽ ݫ ߳ ݫ Ѣ 纸 ̴ Ұ ߴ ߿ ׷ 纸 ݴ޺ημ Ѣ(Ҭ) μ ϰ ȴ.) {߲} 3 ثء 8Ҵ
Ѣ μ , Գ ؼ ߳ ݫ Ǿ ͩ㯿 Ǹ ޾, ı ߴ ߿ ̫̱ͩ⵵ ߴ ߳ ݫ ثء(22) ̷ ߳ ڽ 鿡 켱ؼ ȸ ϰ ȴ. μ ϴ (23) ͩ㯿 ҿܵ ٽ ߳ ͩ Ѵ. ׷ Ⱓ߿ ߴ ߿ (24) ȸ ϰ ȴ. ⼭ ϰ ڸ μ ϴ μ ƴϴ.



ثء(22)
+------+-------+
| (23)
| |
==-+-==
+---------------+-------------------+
| (24)
| +----------------------+---------+
ؿ=-+-= (25)
+------------+-----------+ |
(26) |
| +------------+-------------+ |
| | +------------|------------+-+
ҳ ٥=-+-===========
(28) | (27) ()


ͧ 9



߳ Ͽ (25) ͩ ϰ . ) {߲} 2 ҳެ
, ͩ㯿 ҿܵǾ ̸ ߳ ݫ ( 26) ϰ ȴ.) , [ ء ] {} 2, 1977 ; {ͯ ϼ}, 1984. 1 12.
⧿ ڽ ҳ ٤ ξ ߳ ν ʸ ȴ.
׷ ҳ ҳ(27) '' ǥǴ Ϸ ӿ ߳ ⧡ ϰ ټ ̷ ̶ͩ ִ. ҳ(28) ׷ Ȳ ӿ 26-27 ͩ㯿 ҿܵǾ ٽ ҳ ľؾ ̴.
̿ Ÿ ҽ̴. 濡 񼺿 õüε ü ̹Ƿ, Ю𤸦 Ż İȥ Ȳ ؼ ̴. ׷Ƿ ʥͧ ܰ ؿ٥ ) {߲} 41
٥Ѱ ) {߲} 2
µǴ ͩ㯿 Ϸ ܰ ġ ִ.) ̿ ؼ 11 ߾ ͩ ͧϡ .


ٷ ̸ {߲} Ѣ ź DZ Ͽ, ߲ء Żؼ ߳ ݡ 5 ģ ͩߴٴ ǰ õǾ ߾ ͩ㯿 ο ϰ Ǿ . ° Ұ 踦 ΰ ̿ 浵 . ׷Ƿ ߾ ͩ ü Ըϱ ؼ Ϲ μ Ү ٰ Բ ̵ 迡 ظ ϴ.
ͩ ü ϱ ؼ Ү 踦 ݿ ִ ͩͧ ʿϸ , ͩͧϸ ϱ ؼ ͩ Ǿ Ѵ. ͩ پ ȣ ̶ , ġκп ո . , ϴ پ ȸ ݿ ̹Ƿ, ׷ µ ؼ Ѣ ʫ ȸ ϴܸ ִ.
߾ ̴ 䫸 ݫͧ μ ͩͧϴ ۨͧ ٸ ׷ , Ү װ ϰ ͩ ü ϴµ Ѱ谡 ־. ߿ ͩ ϼ ۾μ Ү սǼ鰣 ϰ 踦 ִ ͩͧϸ .
߾ ͩ㯿 ߳ ڰ Ͱ ׵ Ŀ ׵ ߳ ڰ . ׷Ƿ ߾ۿ ()߳-()-߳(߳)߳-()߳-߳(߳) ģ ͩ ̫ ־ٰ ִ. , Ү Ͽ ̫ͩ ߳ ݫ ߳ ڽ 켱ؼ ͩߴ.
ͩ ̫ ȿ ٰ , ׵ ͩ㯿 ҿܴ ̳ ҿ ĥ . ߿ ͩ㯿 ҿܵǾ Ҹ ǰ ۿ ̫ͩ ׵ ϱ ͩ ο ǹ̸ Ү ̷, ׷ ߳ ݫ ߳ ׸ ־ ̴. ͩ ִ ׷ Ү 濡 ͩ ִ κ̱⵵ ϴ. ֳϸ ݰ 踦 ڰ ͩ㯿 ġ ־ ̴.
߾ Ү ݰ ϰ ͩ㯿 ¸ϱ ͩ 깰̸, ׷ Ǵ Ү ͩ㯿 ҿܵ ж ذϱ , ϳ ġ ߴ.
̫ͩ ͩ㯿 ҿܿ ׸ ϱ õ Ү , ׸ ͩ 谡 ߾ ͩ ϰ ݵ ͩ ʸ ؼ 캸Ҵ.
̿ ߾ ͩ Ү ߽ Ҵ. ׷ ͩ㯿 ۿ ִ پ ε鿡 䰡 Ѵ. ׷Ƿ ̿ پ ٰ Բ ʿ ̴.