Alfano's Digest of
Louis Alfano pulled the following listings of Italian ruling houses from The Wordsworth Handbook of Kings and Queens and posted them to the PIE (Pointers In E-Mail) listserver. He did so to help us understand the diversity of Italian nobility. We must realize that less than 150 years ago Italy was comprised of about 10 separate small countries, and as a result, great-great grandpa was NOT "Italian," but either Piemontese, Toscano, Veneziano, Modenese, Parmigiano, a subject of the Pope, or Napoletano-Siciliano, etc. 

Since all of these ruling groups held sway over parts of Italy, I hope you will find the information which follows helpful.


(Excerpted from The Wordsworth Handbook of Kings & Queens 
by John E. Morby; Copyright (c) 1989 by the author)

  The Medieval Kingdom of Italy
  The Doges of Venice
  The Kingdom of Naples and Sicily
  The d'Este in Ferrara and Modena
  The Montefeltro and Della Rovere in Urbino
  The Visconti and Sforza in Milan
  The Gonzaga in Mantua
  The de' Medici and their Successors in Florence
  The Farnese and Bourbons in Parma
  The House of Savoy

888-984 Berengar I of Friuli (maternal grandson of Emperor Louis I; crowned emperor 915)
889-894 Guy of Spoleto (rival king; crowned emperor 891)
894-898 Lambert (son; co-regent 891; crowned emperor 892)
900-905 Louis of Provence (rival king; crowned emperor 901; deposed, died 928)
922-926 Rudolf of Burgundy (rival king; deposed, died 937)
926-948 Hugh of Arles
948-950 Lothar (son; co-regent 931)
950-963 Berengar II of Ivrea (maternal grandson of Berengar I; deposed, died 966)
950-963 Adalbert (son; co-regent; deposed, died 972?; union with the Holy Roman Empire)
Fasoli, G., I Re d'Italia (888-962) (Florence, 1949)
Mor, C.G., L'Eta Feudale (2 vols., Milan, 1952-3) (Storia Politica d'Italia, VI)

726-737 Orso (chosen "dux" of Venetia following revolt against Byzantine rule)
737-742 Five "magistri militum," one year each
742-755 Diodato (son of Orso; deposed)
755-756 Galla (deposed)
756-764 Domenico Monegario (deposed)
764-787 Maurizio
787-803 Giovanni (son; deposed)
803-810 Obelerio (deposed, died 831)
810-827 Agnello Particiaco
827-829 Giustiniano Particiaco (son)
829-836 Giovanni Particiaco I (brother; deposed)
836-864 Pietro Tradonico
864-881 Orso Particiaco I
881-887 Giovanni Particiaco II (son; abdicated)
887 Pietro Candiano I
887-888 Giovanni Particiaco II (again; abdicated)
888-911 Pietro Tribuno
911-932 Orso Particiaco II (abdicated)
932-939 Pietro Candiano II
939-942 Pietro Badoer (son of Orso Particiaco II)
942-959 Pietro Candiano III (son of Pietro II)
959-976 Pietro Candiano IV (son)
976-978 St. Pietro Orseolo I (abdicated, died 997?)
978-979 Vitale Candiano
979-991 Tribuno Menio
991-1009 Pietro Orseolo II (son of Pietro I)
1009-1026 Ottone Orseolo (son; deposed, died 1031)
1026-1030 Pietro Centranico (deposed)
1030-1031 Orso Orseolo (son of Pietro II; regent; resigned, died 1049)
1031 Domenico Orseolo (deposed)
1031-1041 Domenico Flabiano
1041-1071 Domenico Contarini I
1071-1084 Domenico Silvo (deposed)
1084-1095 Vitale Falier
1095-1101 Vitale Michiel I
1101-1118 Ordelaffo Falier
1118-1130 Domenico Michiel
1130-1148 Pietro Polani
1148-1155 Domenico Morosini
1155-1172 Vitale Michiel II
1172-1178 Sebastiano Ziani
1178-1192 Orio Mastropiero (abdicated, died 1192)
1192-1205 Enrico Dandolo
1205-1229 Pietro Ziani (abdicated, died 1229)
1229-1249 Jacopo Tiepolo (abdicated, died 1249)
1249-1253 Marino Morosini
1253-1268 Renier Zeno
1268-1275 Lorenzo Tiepolo
1275-1280 Jacopo Contarini (deposed, died 1280)
1280-1289 Giovanni Dandolo
1289-1311 Pietro Gradenigo
1311-1312 Marino Zorzi
1312-1328 Giovanni Soranzo
1329-1339 Francesco Dandolo
1339-1342 Bartolomeo Gradenigo
1343-1354 Andrea Dandolo
1354-1355 Marino Falier
1355-1356 Giovanni Gradenigo
1356-1361 Giovanni Dolfin
1361-1365 Lorenzo Celsi
1365-1368 Marco Cornaro
1368-1382 Andrea Contarini
1382 Michele Morosini
1382-1400 Antonio Venier
1400-1413 Michele Steno
1414-1423 Tommaso Mocenigo
1423-1457 Francesco Foscari (deposed, died 1457)
1457-1462 Pasquale Malipiero
1462-1471 Cristoforo Moro
1471-1473 Niccolo` Tron
1473-1474 Niccolo` Marcello
1474-1476 Pietro Mocenigo
1476-1478 Andrea Vendramin
1478-1485 Giovanni Mocenigo
1485-1486 Marco Barbarigo
1486-1501 Agostino Barbarigo
1501-1521 Leonardo Loredan
1521-1523 Antonio Grimani
1523-1538 Andrea Gritti
1539-1545 Pietro Lando
1545-1553 Francesco Donato
1553-1554 Marcantonio Trevisan
1554-1556 Francesco Venier
1556-1559 Lorenzo Priuli
1559-1567 Girolamo Priuli
1567-1570 Pietro Loredan
1570-1577 Alvise Mocenigo I
1577-1578 Sebastiano Venier
1578-1585 Niccolo` da Ponte
1585-1595 Pasquale Cicogna
1595-1605 Marino Grimani
1606-1612 Leonardo Donato
1612-1615 Marcantonio Memmo
1615-1618 Giovanni Bembo
1618 Niccolo` Donato
1618-1623 Antonio Priuli
1623-1624 Francesco Contarini
1625-1629 Giovanni Cornaro I
1630-1631 Niccolo` Contarini
1631-1646 Francesco Erizzo
1646-1655 Francesco Molin
1655-1656 Carlo Contarini
1656 Francesco Cornaro
1656-1658 Bertuccio Valier
1658-1659 Giovanni Pesaro
1659-1675 Domenico Contarini II
1675-1676 Niccolo` Sagredo
1676-1684 Alvise Contarini
1684-1688 Marcantonio Giustinian
1688-1694 Francesco Morosini
1694-1700 Silvestro Valier
1700-1709 Alvise Mocenigo II
1709-1722 Giovanni Cornaro II
1722-1732 Alvise Mocenigo III
1732-1735 Carol Ruzzini
1735-1741 Alvise Pisani
1741-1752 Pietro Grimani
1752-1762 Francesco Loredan
1762-1763 Marco Foscarini
1763-1778 Alvise Mocenigo IV
1779-1789 Paolo Renier
1789-1797 Ludovico Manin (abdicated, died 1802; French occupation 1797-8, then Austrian rule)

There are basic uncertainties in the chronology of the first four centuries and many dates vary by a year or so; the scheme above is that of Cessi. On the accession of Vitale Michiel II, see V. Lazzarini. Archivio Veneto, fifth series, I (1927), 181. Relationships are given only for the period when the dogeship was hereditary; for lineages and family names, many of which are uncertain, see Cessi. 

Names and Titles: 

The basic title from the fourteenth century was "dux Venetiarum;" see V. Lazzarini, 'I titoli dei dogi di Venezia,' "Archivio Veneto," third series, V (1903), 271-311.

Cessi, R., Venezia Ducale (2 vols., Venice 1963-5.)
Kretschmayr, H., Geschichte Von Venedig (3 vols., Gotha, 1905-34).

House of Hauteville - Dukes of Apulia:
1059-1085 Robert Guiscard (son of Tancred of Hauteville; duke of Apulia as a vassal of the papacy 1059)
1085-1111 Roger Borsa (son)
1111-1127 William (son; union with Sicily 1128)
Counts of Sicily:
1072-1101 Roger I (son of Tancred; count of Sicily following capture of Palermo 1072)
1101-1105 Simon (son)
Kings of Naples and Sicily:
1105-1154 Roger II, the Great (brother, duke of Apulia 1128; king of Sicily 1130)
1154-1166 William I, the Bad (son; co-regent 1151)
1166-1189 William II, the Good (son)
1190-1194 Tancred of Lecce (grandson of Roger II)
1192-1194 Roger III (son; co-regent)
1194 William III (brother; deposed, died 1198?)
House of Hohenstaufen:
1194-1197 Henry (king of the Romans 1190; married Constance, daughter of Roger II)
1197-1250 Frederick I (son; king of the Romans 1212)
1250-1254 Conrad (son; king of the Romans 1250; interregnum 1254-8)
1258-1266 Manfred (bastard brother)
House of Anjou - Kings of Naples:
1266-1285 Charles I (count of Anjou; lost Sicily 1282)
1285-1309 Charles II, the Lame (son)
1309-1343 Robert the Wise (son)
1343-1381 Joan I (granddaughter; deposed, died 1382)
1381-1386 Charles III of Durazzo (great-grandson of Charles II; king of Hungary 1385)
1386-1414 Ladislas (son)
1414-1435 Joan II (sister)
1435-1442 Rene' the Good (adopted son; deposed, died 1480)
House of Aragon:
1443-1458 Alfonso I, the Magnanimous (king of Aragon 1416)
1458-1494 Ferdinand I (bastard son)
1494-1495 Alfonso II (son; abdicated, died 1495)
1495-1496 Ferdinand II (son)
1496-1501 Frederick (son of Ferdinand I; deposed, died 1504; Aragonese, then Spanish rule 1501-1707; Austrian rule 1707-34)
House of Aragon - Kings of Sicily:
1283-1285 Peter I, the Great (king of Aragon 1276; married Constance, daughter of Manfred)
1285-1295 James the Just (son; abdicated; Aragon 1291-1327)
1296-1337 Frederick II (brother; lord of Sicily 1295-6)
1337-1342 Peter II (son; co-regent 1320)
1342-1355 Louis (son)
1355-1377 Frederick III, the Simple (brother)
1377-1401 Mary (daughter)
1390-1409 Martin I, the Younger (son of Martin of Aragon, married Mary)
1409-1410 Martin II, the Humane (father; Aragon 1396; interregnum 1410-12; Aragonese, then Spanish rule 1412-1713)
House of Savoy:
1713-1720 Victor Amadeus II (king of Sardinia 1720-30; Austrian rule 1720-34)
House of Bourbon - Kings of Naples and Sicily:
1734-1759 Charles (king of Spain 1759-88)
1759-1816 Ferdinand IV (son, lost Naples 1806-15)
House of Bonaparte - Kings of Naples:
1806-1808 Joseph Napoleon (brother of Napoleon I, emperor of the French; king of Spain 1808-13)
1808-1815 Joachim Murat (married Caroline, sister of Napoleon I; grand duke of Berg 1806-8; deposed, died 1815)
House of Bourbon - Kings of the Two Sicilies:
1816-1825 Ferdinand I (formerly Ferdinand IV; kingdom of the Two Sicilies 1816)
1825-1830 Francis I (son)
1830-1859 Ferdinand II (son)
1859-1860 Francis II (son; deposed, died 1894; union with the kingdom of Sardinia)
Leonard, E.G., Les Angevins de Naples (Paris, 1954).
Storia di Napoli (11 vols. in 15 pts., Naples 1967-78).

Lords of Ferrara:
1196-1212 Azzo I (marquis of Este as Azzo VI; podesta` of Ferrara 1196)
1212-1215 Aldobrandino I (son)
1215-1264 Azzo II, the Younger (brother)
1264-1293 Obizzo I (grandson; lord of Ferrara 1264; of Modena 1289)
1293-1308 Azzo III (son)
-1308 Fresco (son; deposed, died 1309; Venetian, then papal rule 1308-17)
1317-1335 Rinaldo (grandson of Obizzo I)
1317-1344 Niccolo` I (brother)
1317-1352 Obizzo II (brother)
1352-1361 Aldobrandino III (son)
1361-1388 Niccolo` II, the Lame (brother)
1388-1393 Alberto (brother)
1393-1441 Niccolo` III (son)
1441-1450 Leonello (son)
Dukes of Ferrara:
1450-1471 Borso (brother; duke of Modena 1452.; made duke of Ferrara by pope Paul II 1471)
1471-1505 Ercole I (brother)
1505-1534 Alfonso I (son)
1534-1559 Ercole II (son)
1559-1597 Alfonso II (son)
Dukes of Modena:
1597-1628 Cesare (grandson of Alfonso I; union of Ferrara with the papal states 1598)
1628-1629 Alfonso III (son; abdicated, died 1644)
1629-1658 Francis I (son)
1658-1662 Alfonso IV (son)
1662-1694 Francis II (son)
1694-1737 Rinaldo (son of Francis I)
1737-1780 Francis III (son)
1780-1796 Ercole III (son; deposed, died 1803; union with the Cispadane Republic and later regimes 1796-1814)
House of Habsburg-Lorraine:
1814-1846 Francis IV (son of Mary Beatrice, daughter of Ercole III, and Ferdinand, son of emperor Francis I)
1846-1859 Francis V (son; deposed, died 1875; union with the kingdom of Sardinia 1860)
Chiappini, L., Gli Estensi (Milan, 1967).
Gundersheimer, W. L., Ferrara: The Style of a Renaissance Despotism (Princeton, 1973).

Counts of Urbino:
1226-1241 Buonconte (count of Montefeltro; invested with Urbino 1226)
1241-1253 Montefeltrano (son)
1253-1296 Guido (son; papal rule 1285-04; abdicated, died 1298)
1296-1322 Federico I (son)
1322-1360 Nolfo (son; papal rule 1322-4)
1360-1363 Federico II (son)
1363-1404 Antonio (son; papal rule 1369-75)
1404-1443 Guidantonio (son)
1443-1444 Oddantonio (son; made duke of Urbino by pope Eugenius IV 1443)
Dukes of Urbino:
1444-1482 Federico III (bastard brother; made duke by pope Sixtus IV 1474)
1482-1508 Guidobaldo I (son)
House of Della Rovere:
1508-1538 Francesco Maria I (son of Giovanna, daughter of Federico III, and Giovanni della Rovere)
1538-1574 Guidubaldo II (son)
1574-1621 Francesco Maria II (son; abdicated)
1621-1623 Federico Ubaldo (son)
1623-1631 Francesco Maria II (again; resigned authority 1624; union with the papal states 1631)

Some dates down to 1363 may vary by a year or so.

Franceschini, G., I Montefeltro (Milan, 1970).
Ugolini, F., Storia Dei Conti E Duchi d'Urbino (2 vols., Florence, 1859).

House of Visconti - Lords of Milan:
Matteo 1, the Great (captain of the people 1287; lord 1313; abdicated, died 1322)
1322-1327 Galeazzo I (son; deposed, died 1328; republic 1327-29)
1329-1339 Azzone (son)
1339-1349 Luchino (son of Matteo I)
1339-1354 Giovanni (brother)
1354-1355 Matteo II (nephew)
1354-1378 Galeazzo II (brother)
1354-1385 Bernabo` (brother; deposed, died 1385)
Dukes of Milan:
1378-1402 Gian Galeazzo (son of Galeazzo II; made duke of Milan by Wenceslas, king of the Romans, 1395)
1402-1412 Giovanni Maria (son)
1412-1447 Filippo Maria (brother; Ambrosian Republic 1447-50)
House of Sforza:
1450-1466 Francesco I (married Blanca Maria, daughter of Filippo Maria)
1466-1476 Galeazzo Maria (son)
1476-1494 Gian Galeazzo (son)
1494-1499, Ludovico Maria (son of Francesco I; deposed, 1500 died 1508; French occupation 1499-1512)
1512-1515 Massimillano (son; deposed, died 1530; French occupation 1515-21)
Francesco II (brother; deposed during imperial occupation 1525-9; union with the empire 1535)
Cognasso, F., I Visconti (Milan, 1966).
Santoro, C., Gli Sforza (Milan, 1968).

Captains-General of Mantua:
1328-1360 Luigi (captain-general of Mantua after fall of Bonacolsi rule 1328)
1360-1369 Guido (son)
1369-1382 Ludovico I (son)
1382-1407 Francesco I (son)
Marquises of Mantua:
1407-1444 Gianfrancesco (son; made marquis of Mantua by emperor Sigismund 1433)
1444-1478 Ludovico II (son)
1478-1484 Federico I (son)
1484-1519 Francesco II (son)
Dukes of Mantua:
1519-1540 Federico II (son; made duke of Mantua by emperor Charles V 1530; marquis of Montferrat 1536)
1540-1550 Francesco III (son)
1550-1587 Guglielmo (brother; duke of Montferrat 1575)
1587-1612 Vincenzo I (son)
1612 Francesco IV (son)
16l2-1626 Ferdinando (brother)
1626-1627 Vincenzo II (brother; war of the Mantuan Succession 1628-31)
Line of Nevers:
1631-1637 Carlo I (duke of Nevers; grandson of Federico II)
1637-1665 Carlo II (grandson)
1665-1708 Ferdinando Carlo (son; union of Mantua with the empire and of Montferrat with Savoy,1708)
Coniglio, G., I Gonzaga (Milan, 1967).
--- Mantova: La Storia (3 vols., Mantua, 1958-63).

House of Medici:
1434-1464 Cosimo the Elder (son of Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici; de facto ruler of Florence 1434)
1464-1469 Piero I, the Gouty (son)
1469-1492 Lorenzo the Magnificent (son)
1492-1494 Piero II (son; deposed, died 1503; republic 1494-1512)
1512-1513 Giuliano of Nemours (brother; deposed, died 1516)
1513-1519 Lorenzo of Urbino (son of Piero II)
1519-1523 Giulio (grandson of Piero I; pope Clement VII 1523-34)
1524-1527 Ippolito (bastard son of Giuliano; deposed, died 1535; republic 1527-30)
Duchy of Florence:
1531-1537 Alessandro (bastard son of Giulio; duke of Florence 1532)
Grand Duchy of Tuscany:
1537-1574 Cosimo I (fifth in descent from Giovanni di Bicci; made grand duke of Tuscany by pope Pius V 1569)
1574-1587 Francis I (son)
1587-1609 Ferdinand I (brother)
1609-1621 Cosimo II (son)
1621-1670 Ferdinand II (son)
1670-1723 Cosimo III (son)
1723-1737 Giovanni Gastone (son)
House of Habsburg-Lorraine:
1737-1765 Francis II (duke of Lorraine 1729-37; emperor 1745)
1765-1790 Leopold I (son; emperor 1790-2)
1790-1799 Ferdinand III (son; deposed; French occupation 1799, 1800-1; grand duke of Wurzburg 1806-14)
House of Bourbon:
1801-1803 Louis I (son of Ferdinand, duke of Parma; reconstitution of Tuscany as the kingdom of Etruria 1801-7)
1803-1807 Louis II (Charles Louis) (son; deposed; French rule 1807-9; duke of Parma 1847-49)
House of Bonaparte:
1809-1814 Marie Anne (Elisa) (sister of Napoleon I, emperor of the French; deposed, died 1820)
House of Habsburg-Lorraine:
1814-1824 Ferdinand III (restored)
1824-1859 Leopold II (son; abdicated, died 1870)
1859-1860 Ferdinand IV (son; deposed, died 1908; union with the kingdom of Sardinia)
Andrieux, M., I Medici (Milan, 1963).
Schevill, F., History of Florence (New York, 1961).

House of Farnese:
1545-1547 Pier Luigi (made duke of Parma and Piacenza by his father, Pope Paul III, 1545)
1547-1586 Ottavio (son)
1586-1592 Alessandro (son)
1592-1622 Ranuccio I (son)
1622-1646 Odoardo (son)
1646-1694 Ranuccio II (son)
1694-1727 Francesco (son)
l727-1731 Antonio (brother)
House of Bourbon:
1731-1736 Charles I (son of Elizabeth, niece of Antonio and Philip V of Spain; king of Spain 1759-88; Austrian rule 1736-48)
1748-1765 Philip (brother)
1765-18O2 Ferdinand (son; French occupation 1802-8; union with France 1808-14)
House of Habsburg-Lorraine:
1814-1847 Marie Louise (daughter of Francis I, emperor of Austria; ex-empress of Napoleon I, emperor of the French)
House of Bourbon:
1847-1849 Charles II (grandson of Ferdinand; duke of Lucca 1824-47, abdicated, died 1883)
1849-1854 Charles III (son)
1854-1859 Robert (son; deposed, died 1907; union with the kingdom of Sardinia 1860)
Bazzi, T., and U. Benassi, Storia di Parma (Parma, 1908).
Nasalli Rocca, E., I Farnese (Milan, 1969).

Counts of Savoy:
1000-1048 Humbert I, Whitehands (count in Savoy and Belley by 1000, in Aosta and Maurienne by 1043)
1048-1051 Amadeus I (son)
1051-1059 Oddone (brother)
1059-1078 Peter I (son)
1078-1080 Amadeus II (brother)
1080-1103 Humbert II, the Fat (son)
1103-1148 Amadeus III (son)
1148-1189 Humbert III (son)
1189-1233 Thomas (son)
1233-1253 Amadeus IV (son)
1253-1263 Boniface (son)
1263-1268 Peter II (son of Thomas)
1268-1285 Philip I (brother)
1285-1323 Amadeus V, the Great (nephew)
1323-1329 Edward the Liberal (son)
1329-1343 Aymon the Pacific (brother)
1343-1383 Amadeus VI, the Green Count (son)
1383-1391 Amadeus VII, the Red Count (son)
Dukes of Savoy:
1391-1440 Amadeus VIII (son; duke of Savoy 1416; abdicated, died 1451, antipope as Felix V I440-9)
1440-1465 Louis (son)
1465-1472 Amadeus IX (son)
1472-1482 Philibert I, the Hunter (son)
1482-1490 Charles I, the Warrior (brother)
1490-1496 Charles John Amadeus (son)
1496-1497 Philip II of Bresse (son of Louis)
1497-1504 Philibert II, the Handsome (son)
1504-1553 Charles II, the Good (brother)
1553-1580 Emmanuel Philibert (son)
1580-1630 Charles Emmanuel I, the Great (son)
1630-1637 Victor Amadeus I (son)
1637-1638 Francis Hyacinth (son)
1638-1675 Charles Emmanuel II (brother)
Kings of Sardinia:
1675-1730 Victor Amadeus II (son; king of Sardinia 1720; abdicated, died 1732)
1730-1773 Charles Emmanuel III (son)
1773-1796 Victor Amadeus III (son)
1796-1802 Charles Emmanuel IV (son, abdicated, died 1819: French annexation of Savoy and Piedmont 1792/8-1814)
1802-1821 Victor Emmanuel I (brother, abdicated, died 1824)
1821-1831 Charles Felix (brother)
Line of Carignano:
1831-1849 Charles Albert (prince of Carignano; seventh in descent from Charles Emmanuel I; abdicated, died 1849)
Kings of Italy:
1849-1878 Victor Emmanuel II (son, kingdom of Italy 1861)
1878-1900 Humbert I (son)
1900-1946 Victor Emmanuel III (son; abdicated, died 1947)
1946 Humbert II (son; deposed, died 1983; proclamation of the republic)

Dates down to 1059 are approximate. 

Names and Titles: 

The use of the title 'count of Savoy' dates from 1125. Victor Emmanuel III was styled emperor of Ethiopia from 1936 to 1943, king of Albania from 1939 to 1943.

Cognasso, F., Umberto Biancamano (Turin, 1929).
--- I Savoia (Milan, 1971).

Louis Alfano

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